BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging gram-negative pathogen that can cause healthcare-acquired infections among patients. Treatment is complicated for cases of healthcare-acquired infection with A. baumannii resistant to imipenem.
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the risk factors for imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) infection or colonization and to identify the effect of resistance on clinical and economic outcomes.
METHODS: We analyzed data from 2 medical centers of the University of Pennsylvania. Longitudinal trends in the prevalence of IRAB clinical isolates were characterized during the period from 1989 through 2004. For A. baumannii isolates obtained from 2001 through 2006, a case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between prior carbapenem use and IRAB infection or colonization, and a cohort study was performed to identify the effect of IRAB infection or colonization on mortality, length of stay after culture, and hospital cost after culture.
RESULTS: From 1989 through 2004, the annual prevalence of IRAB isolates ranged from 0% to 21%. During the period from 2001 through 2006, there were 386 unique patients with A. baumannii isolates, and 89 (23.1%) had IRAB isolates. Prior carbapenem use was independently associated with IRAB infection or colonization (adjusted odds ratio, 3.04 [95% confidence interval, 1.07-8.65]). There was a borderline significant association between IRAB infection or colonization and mortality, although this association was limited to isolates recovered from blood samples (adjusted odds ratio, 5.30 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-34.59]). Compared with patients with imipenem-susceptible A. baumannii infection or colonization, patients with IRAB infection or colonization had a longer hospital stay after culture (median, 21 vs 16 days; P = .07) and greater hospital charges after culture (mean, $334,516 vs $276,059; P = .03). After controlling for patient location in an intensive care unit, transfer from another facility, and length of hospital stay before culture, there was no longer an independent association between IRAB infection or colonization and higher cost after culture and length of stay after positive culture result.
CONCLUSIONS: Many A. baumannii isolates exhibit imipenem resistance, which is strongly associated with prior use of carbapenems. Given the high mortality rate associated with A. baumannii infection or colonization, interventions to curb further emergence of cases of IRAB infection and strategies to optimize therapy are needed.